Amakuru ava mu muryango w’abibumbye aravuga ko Inama y’umuryango w’abibumbye igiye gusohora inyandiko ivuga uruhare rwa Ministre w’Ingabo z’u Rwanda n’abandi basirikare bakuru benshi mu gufasha inyeshyamba zirwanya ubutegetsi bwa Congo zibumbiye mu mutwe M23.
Ibimenyetso biri muri iyi nyandiko biravugwa ko ari simusiga bikaba byerekana ubufasha Leta y’u Rwanda iyobowe na Paul Kagame iha M23 ko buva mu nzego zo hejuru. Imirwano hagati ya M23 n’ingabo za Congo imaze gukura mu byabo abantu bagera mu bihumbi byinshi. Iyi nyandiko ikaba yiyongera kuri rapport y’impuguke za ONU imaze iminsi itangajwe.
Ibiro ntaramakuru by’abongereza Reuters byabonye kuri uyu wa kabiri tariki 26 Kamena 2012 inyandiko ifite impapuro 44, umwe mu bahagarariye kimwe mu bihugu 15 bigize inama y’umutekano y’umuryango w’abibumbye, utashatse ko umwirondoro we umenyekana yavuze ko bishobora gutwara iminsi mike kugira ngo iyi nyandiko izagere ku rubuga rw’akanama k’ibihano ka ONU.
Ngo mu iperereza ryakozwe kuva mu 2011, akanama k’impuguke ka ONU kashoboye kubona ibimenyetso byerekana inkunga abayobozi b’u Rwanda baha imitwe y’inyeshyamba yo mu burasirazuba bwa Congo.
Ingabo z’u Rwanda zahaye ibikoresho, imbunda, amasasu n’ibindi inyeshyamba za M23 nk’uko bivugwa muri iyo nyandiko, ikomeza ivuga ko kandi abasirikare bakuru b’u Rwanda bari muri icyo gikorwa cyo gufasha M23 mu rwego rwa politiki n’amafaranga ubwabo.
Leta ya Congo yari yareze Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika ko irimo kubangamira isohoka ry’iyo rapport no gushyira igitutu ku kanama k’impuguke kakoze iperereza. Ariko abategetsi ba Amerika barabihakanye bavuga ko abandi bagize inama y’umutekano y’umuryango w’abibumbye basabye ko iyi nyandiko yiyongera kuri rapport yaba iretse gusohoka u Rwanda rukabanza gutanga ibisobanuro maze hakabaho kugereranya.
Ubundi hari hateganijwe ko iyi nyandiko yiyongera kuri rapport itagombaga gusohoka mbere y’ukwezi gutaha, ariko abahagarariye ibihugu byabo muri ONU bavuga ko kubera ibirego by’uko ngo iyo nyandiko irimo kubangamirwa gusohoka, bahisemo kuyisohora vuba.
Hari ibice bimwe by’iyo nyandiko twashoboye gusoma:
-Inkunga u Rwanda ruha M23:
Mu ntangiriro iyi nyandiko iravuga ukuntu Leta y’u Rwanda iha inkunga M23 mu rwego rwa politiki na gisirikare. Ikimara gufata agace ka Runyoni kari ku mupaka n’u Rwanda, M23 yafunguye inzira ebyiri zo gucishamo ibikoresho imwe iva Runyoni kugera mu Kinigi mu Rwanda. Izo nzira akaba arizo abasirikare bakuru b’ingabo z’u Rwanda bakoresheje mu kohereza abasirikare, abasore bajya mu gisirikare cya M23, amasasu n’imbunda. Impuguke za ONU zivuga ko zabonye ibimenyetso by’uko abayobozi b’u Rwanda bakanguriye abahoze muri CNDP baba abanyapolitiki cyangwa abasirikare, abanyapolitiki bo muri Kivu y’amajyaruguru, abacuruzi ndetse n’urubyiruko gushyigikira M23.
-Ubufasha mu ishingwa rya M23 ku butaka bw’u Rwanda:
Colonel Sultani Makenga yatorotse igisirikare cya Congo agamije gushinga M23 akoresheje ubutaka bw’u Rwanda kandi aherwa amategeko mu bigo bya gisirikare by’ingabo z’u Rwanda. Tariki ya 4 Gicurasi 2012, Col Makenga yambutse umupaka ava i Goma ajya i Gisenyi mu Rwanda ahategerereza abasirikare be baje baturutse i Goma na Bukavu. Amakuru aturuka mu iperereza, mu bakorana na M23, no mu banyapolitiki bo muri Congo yahawe akanama k’impuguke za ONU aravuga ko umukuru wa Diviziyo y’ingabo z’u Rwanda y’uburengerazuba, Gen Emmanuel Ruvusha yakiriye Colonel Sultani Makenga akigera ku Gisenyi. Ayo makuru akomeza vuga ko kandi Gen Ruvusha yagiranye inama nyinshi n’abandi basirikare bakuru b’u Rwanda muri Gisenyi na Ruhengeri mu minsi yakurikiyeho ari kumwe na Colonel Makenga.
The Rwandan government played a pivotal role in the creation of an armed anti-government mutiny in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and then supplied the so-called M23 mutineers with weapons, ammunitions, and young Rwandan recruits, according to a confidential report by a U.N. Group of Experts.
The U.N. panel claimed in a 44-page report, which has been distributed to Security Council members but not made public, that Rwanda’s role in the mutiny constituted a violation of U.N. Security Council resolutions banning the supply of weapons to armed groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In anticipation of the report’s release, Rwanda’s Foreign Minister Louise Mushikiwabo denied at a press conference at U.N. headquarters Monday that top Rwandan officials have backed the mutineers, insisting that top Rwandan military officials had in fact urged the mutineers to put down their arms and resolve their difference with the Congolese army through talks. « Of course, Rwanda’s top army leadership in no way would be involved in destroying the peace they have been working very hard to build, » she said.
The report’s release has been delayed for weeks amid allegations by the Congolese government that the United States had sought to block publication of report that could prove damaging to a close ally. But the United States and other council member ultimately agreed to the release of the report after the experts had a chance to brief the Rwandan government on its findings. The final report is expected to be made public later this week. But Turtle Bay, which obtained a leaked copy, is posting excerpts from the report:
« Since the outset of its current mandate, the Group [of Experts] has gathered evidence of arms embargo and sanctions regime violations committed by the Rwandan Government. These violations consist of the provision of material and financial support to armed groups operation in the eastern DRC, including the recently established M23, in contravention of paragraph 1 of Security Council resolution 1807. The arms embargo and sanctions regimes violations include the following:
*Direct assistance in the creation of M23 through the transport of weapons and soldiers through Rwandan territory;
*Recruitment of Rwandan youth and demobilized ex-combatants as well as Congolese refugees for M23;
*Provision of weapons and ammunition to M23;
*Mobilization and lobbying of Congolese political and financial leaders for the benefit of M23;
*Direct Rwandan Defense Forces (RDF) interventions into Congolese territory to reinforce M23;
*Support to several other armed groups as well as FARDC mutinies in the eastern Congo;
*Violation of the assets freeze and travel ban through supporting sanctioned individuals.
Over the course of its investigation since late 2011, the Group has found substantial evidence attesting to support from Rwandan officials to armed groups operating in the eastern DRC. Initially the RDF [Rwandan Defense Forces] appeared to establish these alliances to facilitate a wave of targeted assassinations against key FDLR [The Demoratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, the armed remnants of Rwanda's former genocidal government] officers, thus significantly weakening the rebel movement (see paragraphs 37 & 38 of interim report). However, these activities quickly extended to support for a series of post electoral mutinies within the FARDC [The Rwandan Armed Forces] and eventually included the direct facilitation, through the use of Rwandan territory, of the creation of the M23 rebellion. The latter is comprised of ex-CNDP officers integrated into the Congolese army (FARDC) in January 2009. Since M23 established itself in strategic positions along the Rwandan border in May 2012, the Group has gathered overwhelming evidence demonstrating that senior RDF officers, in their official capacities, have been backstopping the rebels through providing weapons, military supplies, and new recruits.
In turn, M23 continues to solidify alliance with many other armed groups and mutineer movements, including those previously benefiting from RDF support. This has created enormous security challenges, extending from Ituri district in the north to Fizi territory in the south, for the already overstretched Congolese Army(FARDC). Through such arms embargo violations, Rwandan officials have also been in contravention of the sanctions regime’s travel ban and assets freeze measures, by including three designated individuals amongst their direct allies.
In an attempt to solve the crisis which this Rwandan support to armed groups had exacerbated, the governments of the DRC and Rwanda have held a series of high-level bilateral meetings since early April 2012. During these discussions, Rwandan officials have insisted on impunity for their armed group and mutineer allies, including ex-CNDP General Bosco Ntaganda, and the deployment of additional RDF units to the Kivus to conduct large-scale operations against the FDLR. The latter request has been repeatedly made despite the fact that: a) the RDF halted its unilateral initiatives to weaken the FDLR in late February; b) RDF Special Forces have already been deployed officially in Rutshuru territory for over a year; c) RDF operational units are periodically reinforcing the M23 on the battlefield against the Congolese army; d) M23 is directly and indirectly allied with several FDLR splinter groups; and e) the RDF is remobilizing previously repatriated FDLR to boost the ranks of M23.
* * *
Elevated Standards of Evidence:
In light of the serious nature of these findings, the group has adopted elevated methodological standards. Since early April 2012, the Group has interviewed over 80 deserters of FARDC mutinies and Congolese armed groups, including from M23. Amongst the latter, the Group has interviewed 31 Rwandan nationals. Furthermore, the group has also photographed weapons and military equipment found in arms caches and on the battlefield, as well as obtained official documents and intercepts of radio communication. The Group has also consulted dozens of senior Congolese military commanders and intelligence officials as well as political and community leaders with intricate knowledge of development between DRC and Rwanda. Moreover, the Group has communicated regularly with several active participants of the ex-CNDP mutiny, the M23 rebellion, and other armed groups. Finally, while the Group’s standard methodology requires a minimum of three sources, assessed to be credible and independent of one another, it has raised this to five sources when naming specific individuals involved in these case of arms embargo and sanctions violations.
* * *
Rwandan Support to M23:
Since the earliest stage of its inception, the Group documented a systematic pattern of military and political support provided to the M23 rebellion by Rwandan authorities. Upon taking control over the strategic position of Runyoni, along the Rwandan border with DRC, M23 officers opened two supply routes going from Runyoni to Kinigi or Njerima in Rwanda, which RDF officers used to deliver such support as troops, recruits, and weapons. The Group also found evidence that Rwandan officials mobilized ex-CNDP cadres and officers, North Kivu politicians, business leaders and youth in support of M23.
* * *
Direct Rwandan assistance in creation of M23 through Rwandan territory:
Colonel Sultani Makenga deserted the FARDC in order to create the M23 rebellion using Rwandan territory and benefiting directly from RDF facilitation (See paragraph 104 of interim report). On 4 May, Makenga crossed the boder from Goma into Gisenyi, Rwanda, and waited fro his soldiers to join him from Goma and Bukavu. Intelligence sources, M23 collaborators and local politicians confirmed for the Group that RDF Western Division commander, General Emmanuel Ruvusha, welcomed Makenga upon his arrival to Gisenyi. The same source indicated that Ruvusha subsequently held a series of coordination meetings with other RDF officers in Gisenyi and Ruhengeri over the following days with Makenga.
Ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwifashishije Madame Christine Mukabunani wabohoje ishyaka PS Imberakuru rya Me Bernard Ntaganda ubu ufunze burashaka kurimburana n’imizi iryo shyaka. Amakuru dukesha abarwanashyaka ba PS Imberakuri aravuga ko ubu hari igikorwa kirimo gutegurwa n’ubutegetsi bwa FPR cyo gusenya burundu ishyaka PS Imberakuri nyaryo hagasigara Madame Christine Mukabunani n’abambari be.
Ngo kubera amatangazo menshi n’ubwitange abayoboke ba PS Imberakuri nyayo bagaragaza mu kunenga ibitagenda, kuvuga akarengane abanyarwanda barimo no kwamagana igitugu ubutegetsi bwa FPR bukomeje kugaragaza, ubu Madame Mukabunani nta muturage ashobora kugira icyo abwira ngo amwumve nk’umuntu wa PS Imberakuri ahubwo afatwa nk’umukada wa FPR dore ko yagororewe no kuba uwungirije umukuru wa Forum y’amashyaka ya politiki yemewe mu Rwanda.
Nyuma y’aho habaye ukwibuka imyaka ibiri ishize ishyaka PS Imberakuri rishatse gukora urugendo rwo gusaba ko u Rwanda rwagendera kuri Demokarasi no kwibuka imyaka 2 umukuru waryo Me Bernard Ntaganda n’abandi barwanashyaka bamaze bafunze, mu gushaka kwikura mu isoni no kubahiriza icyifuzo cya Leta y’igitugu ya FPR ngo Madame Mukabunani yafashe icyemezo cyo kurega mu nkiko ubuyobozi nyabwo bwa PS Imberakuri buhagarariwe na Visi Perezida wa mbere Bwana Alexis Bakunzibake.
Nk’uko Madame Mukabunani yabitangarije Radio Ijwi ry’Amerika, yavuze ko ngo agiye kurega mu nkiko abantu basohora amatangazo biyitirira ishyaka abereye umuyobozi, ntatinya no kuvuga ko Me Bernard Ntaganda ngo yari yarirukanywe mu ishyaka. Uyu mudamu wabohije ishyaka Imberakuri avuga ko afite ibimenyetso bihagije ngo bizatuma atsinda urwo rubanza. Uretse ko abanyarwanda bose n’abanyamahanga bamaze kumenye imikorere y’inkiko zo mu Rwanda aho ibihano biba byafashwe mbere y’uko imanza zitangira.
Si ibyo gusa kuko na Ministre w’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu Bwana James Musoni ufite inshingano z’ibijyanye n’amashyaka mu kazi ke avugana na Radio Ijwi ry’Amerika nawe arunga mu rya Madame Mukabunani akavuga ko ishyaka PS Imberakuri bazi ryemewe n’amategeko ari iriyobowe na Madame Mukabunani. Avuga ko abandi basohora amatangazo cyangwa bakora ibindi bikorwa mu izina ry’ishyaka biba binyuranije n’amategeko. Ariko akongeraho ko niba bifuza gushinga irindi shyaka ngo bakwegera inzego zibishinzwe bagatanga ibisabwa iryo shyaka rigashingwa. Ibi ariko ababikurikiranira hafi babibona nko kwigiza nkana. Hakurikijwe ukuntu hagiye habaho amananiza mu kwemera guha amashyaka ibyangombwa byo gukora, ishyaka ryashoboye kwemerwa ritavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi ni PS Imberakuri naryo Leta ya FPR yahise iricamo ibice ndetse imarira mu buroko bamwe mu bayobozi baryo barimo n’umukuru w’ishyaka Me Ntaganda.
Ikigaragara n’uko nyuma y’uko ubutegetsi bubonye ko gufunga Me Ntaganda, no kubohoza ishyaka bitabuza abarwanashyaka ba PS Imberakuri gukomeza umurego wo kugera kubyo biyemeje, banenga ibitagenda banasaba ko habaho ubutabera na demokarasi, ubu Leta imeze nk’iyariye karungu. Madame Mukabunani akoresheje bamwe mu bayoboke ba PS Imberakuri yatumije Kongere yo kwirukana Me Ntaganda n’abandi bayobozi batashakaga kujya mu kwaha kwa FPR, amakuru atugeraho avuga ko iyo Kongere abayoboke berekanywe nk’aba PS Imberakuri bari biganjemo abamaneko n’abakada ba FPR cyangwa abaturage bandi bafashe mu nzira bigendera bakabazana muri iyo Kongere kugira ngo berekane ko habonetse abayoboke benshi.
Mureke tubitege amaso!