Archive pour 22 mai, 2012

Leta y’u Rwanda ikabije kuniga itangazamakuru

Leta y’u Rwanda ikabije kuniga itangazamakuru musoni2190-150x150

James Musoni

Muri iyi minsi dusoma amakuru ku mbuga zitanga amakuru zo mu Rwanda, ku munsi ukurikiyeho ya makuru twajya kuyareba tukayabura. Bisobanuye ko hari amategeko aba yatanzwe ngo izo nkuru zikurwe ku mbuga.

Igiteye inkeke n’uko ari inkuru ziba zijyanye n’ubuzima busanzwe bw’abanyarwanda babamo, Leta iba igamije guhisha kugira ngo ikomeze ibeshye ko ibintu byose ari byiza.

Igishekeje n’uko abatanga amategeko yo kunyonga ayo makuru baruhira ubusa kuko amakuru aba yamenyekanye ahubwo gushaka kunyonga ayo makuru ni nko kwikoza isoni ku bayobozi ku buryo bitera abaturage kwibaza byinshi.

Iyo umuntu ahereye kuri ibi ashobora kwibaza niba ibyo abayobozi batangaza byaba ku bimaze kugerwaho mu mibare n’ibindi byiza byinshi baturatira ko bagezeho biba bitarimo ibikabyo n’ibinyoma. Mu gihe amakosa yose bayatwikira ngo ntagaragare uretse ko akenshi baruhira ubusa biba nko gutwika inzu ugahisha umwotsi biranga bikagaragara.

nk-uyu-mwana-arazira-iki-koko

Amwe mu mafoto ya Mukarukundo arimo guhohoterwa Leta yashatse guhisha

Natanga ingero 2 z’inkuru zamenyekanye cyane:

-Umusore witwa Sadiki Mutabazi wo muri Rubavu yaritwitse nyuma aza no kwitaba Imana ariko igitangaje n’uko inkuru y’ukwitwika kwe yabanje kugaragara ku rubuga Kigali today, mu gihe gito iyo nkuru yahise ikurwa kuri urwo rubuga ndetse icyo kibazo cya Sadiki Mutabazi ntabwo bongeye kugira icyo bongera kukivugaho. Byumvikane ko bahawe amategeko yo kubikora gutyo. N’ibindi bitangazamakuru byagize ubwoba bwo kuvuga kuri iyi nkuru kereka bimwe nka igitondo.com na impinduka.com byayitangaje nyuma y’uko iyo nkuru itangajwe na BBC Gahuza-Miryango.

-Umunyarwandakazi witwa Chantal Mukarukundo, yahaye umwana we umugiraneza ngo amumurerere kuko we atari abishoboye kubera ubukene ndetse bigaragara ko uyu mubyeyi akiri muto cyane. Icyakurikiyeho n’uko polisi y’igihugu yabyivanzemo itamuriyombi uwo wari watanze umwana ndetse acishwa mu gasantere ka Ngororero nk’igisambo cyangwa umwicanyi akubitwa atukwa n’andi mabi ntarondoye. Urubuga Igihe.com rwataye amakuru kuri icyo kibazo ndetse hafatwa n’amafoto, ariko igitangaje n’uko bitateye kabiri ya nkuru iranyongwa. Ubu ntabwo iyo nkuru ikigaragara kuri urwo rubuga ndetse n’amafoto.

Tubibutse ko itangazamakuru ndetse n’itorero ry’igihugu byose bimaze gushyirwa muri Ministère y’Ubutegetsi bw’igihugu n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage. Amakuru aturuka ahantu hatandukanye yemeza ko uyoboye iyo Ministère Bwana James Musoni ari umwe mu batoni ntanyeganyezwa b’ingoma ya Paul Kagame.
Gukomeza kumuha inshingano nyinshi se n’ukugira ngo inzego zishobore kuyoborwa neza cyangwa n’ukongerera ububasha uwo mugabo ukomeye mu gatsiko kagiye koreka u Rwanda?

Marc Matabaro
Rwiza News

MY LEGAL OPINION ON RWANDAN GOVERNMENT WITHDRAW/CANCELLATION OF SOME CITIZENS’ PASSPORTS By Prof. Charles Kambanda

MY LEGAL OPINION ON RWANDAN GOVERNMENT WITHDRAW/CANCELLATION OF SOME CITIZENS’ PASSPORTS By Prof. Charles Kambanda 549785_3167203492797_1046713955_33054372_115453904_n-300x225

Prof. Charles Kambanda

1. Whether or no the State retains absolute ownership of an individual’s passport

There are some things the generality of which the State owns. These include citizenship, passport and wealth. However, when the State grants any of these to an individual in accordance with the law, absent any real defense the State might have, the individual acquires ownership of that thing in its individuality/particularity.

What the State owns is THE citizenship, The Passport, THE wealth. An individual then acquires A passport, citizenship and/or wealth. Although we can touch and see a passport, ones citizenship or wealth, we cannot tough or see THE passport, THE citizenship, THE wealth… A country has only one passport. However, there are many passports in a country. Therefore, THE passport is metaphysical while “A passport” is real. The passport and “A passport” exist at different levels.

While the State owns “THE Passport”, an individual owns “A passport”. While the State’s ownership of THE passport is eternal, an individual’s ownership of “A passport” is temporal.

2. Whether or not there is a contractual relationship between the State – represented by the government – and an individual passport holder:

When the State agrees to grant “A passport” to an individual, for a specific amount, valid specific period only, there is a contractual relationship. Both sides give consideration. At this point, because an individual has paid for “A passport”, that passport becomes his personal property until it expires.

The Constitution of Rwanda is categorical. “Nobody shall be deprived of life, property … without Due Process. Because “A passport is a personal Property for the passport holder, the government which entered into a contract with that individual cannot withdraw that passport arbitrarily. The government must go to Courts of Law or else the government becomes the judge in its own case. That would defeat the basic principles of natural justice. A state cannot take a personal property of an individual except if the taking is for public use and there is compensation.

In this case, the government of Rwanda erred in law. Whereas the State owns The Passport (the generality of the Passport), when each individual acquired “A passport” (the particularity of The Passport), the individual acquired a personal right in a passport. That personal right cannot be taken away without Due Process as the Constitution of Rwanda dictates. Because personal property attached when each individual paid for, and received, a passport, the government of Rwanda cannot take that passport except if that taking is for public use and there is compensation. However, if the State has real defenses, as they apply in any contract, then the State is at liberty to raise such defenses. The most applicable real defense in this case would be Fraud. That fraud can only be fraud in factum). That can only be decided by the Court, not any executive officer.

The government of Rwanda, by withdrawing an individual’s passport, as longer as that individual paid for that passport and the passport is still valid, has committed a material breach of contract and the concerned individuals have a right to legal remedies.

Where the State claims any real defense, natural justice demands that the State cannot be the judge in its own case. In any case, the constitutional Due Process has already attached. Therefore, it must go to court. It cannot be arbitrary. That is what the 2003 Constitution says

 

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